Lithops resources



Lithops 101

Lithops stories

Lithops cultivation

Minimum temperatures bearable by succulents


British Cactus & Succulent Society 




Print lithops resources are not numerous and, as it may seem at first sight, often unavailable.

First of all, check if a library near you has the book by looking it up in the global library catalog WorldCat (you will need to enter your location). Even if your local library does not have it, ask them whether it would be possible to request the book through inter-library loan. As far as articles are concerned, you may be able to access full-text online journals on the topic (such as Cactus and succulent journal) through your local public or university library. Finally, check Amazon or eBay to see if you can get hold of a used copy of a book, which should be much cheaper than buying a new one.


Little Spaeroid Press Expected publishing date: Summer 2012

Boer, H. W., & Boom, B. K. (1965). An analytical key for the genus Lithops. Wageningen: Instituut voor de Veredeling van Tuinbouwgewassen.

Hammer, S. A. (1999). Lithops: Treasures of the veld ; observations on the genus Lithops N.E. Br. Ansty: British Cactus and Succulent Society.

Cole, D. T. (1988). Lithops: Flowering stones. Randburg [South Africa: Acorn Books in association with Russel Friedman Books.

Nel, G. C. (1947). Lithops: Plantae succulentae, rarissimae, in terra obscuratae, e familia Aizoaceae, ex Africa australi. Stellenbosch: Universiteitsuitg. en -boikhandelaars. (in English and Afrikaans)

Rowlette, N., & Flowering Stones Greenhouses (Portland, Or.). (1989). Lithops for the curious, the collector, and the cultist. Portland, Ore: Flowering Stones Greenhouses.

Sprechman, D. L. (1970). Lithops. Rutherford: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press.


Bennett, B., C. Brito, et al. (1988). “Light transmission in Lithops.” Brit. Cact. Succ. J 6: 44-5.

Bent, P. (1972). “Conophytum: some diverse and interesting species.” Bull. Afr. Succ. Pl. Soc 6(6): 247-249.

Bent, P. (1972). “The genus Conophytum.” Bull. Afr. Succ. Pl. Soc 7(3): 128,130.

Bent, P. (1975). “The genus Lithops NE Brown: part 1.” Bull. Afr. Succ. Pl. Soc 10(2): 57-59.

Bugbee, B. (1994). Effects of radiation quality, intensity, and duration on photosynthesis and growth.

Burgoyne, P. (2001). “Fascinating Frithia: notes on a summer-rainfall window-plant.” Cact. Succ. J.(USA) 73(1): 12-19.

Cockburn, W. (1974). “Crassulacean acid metabolism in Lithops insularis; a non-halophytic member of the Mesembryanthemaceae.” Planta 118(1): 89-90.

Chesselet, P., G. Smith, et al. (2000). “Mesembryanthemaceae.” Strelitzia 10: 360–410.

Cole, D. (1984). “Lithops: facts, fables, fantasies and fabrications.” Brit. Cact. Succ. J 2(4): 95-99.

Dugdale, C. (1970). “Lithops: their structure and growth cycle.” Lithops by DL Sprechman. Fairleigh Dickinson Univ. Press 57: 15-20.

Dugdale, C. B. (1968). “Some notes on the internal anatomy of Lithops: II.” JS Afr. Bot 34: 143-51.

Egbert, K. J. and C. E. Martin (2000). “Light penetration via leaf windows does not increase photosynthesis in three species of desert succulents.” Journal of plant physiology 157(5): 521-525.

Eller, B. and N. Grobbelaar (1986). “Diurnal temperature variation in and around a Lithops lesliei plant growing in its natural habitat on a clear day.” S. Afr. J. Bot 52: 403-7.

ELLER, B. M. and A. NIPKOW (1983). “Diurnal course of the temperature in a Lithops sp.(Mesembryanthemaceae Fenzl) and its surrounding soil.” Plant, Cell & Environment 6(7): 559-565.

Fearn, B. (1977). “An investigation into the effect of age on the germination potential of seeds of 600 species of cacti, together with a note on the viability of Lithops seeds.” Excelsa 7: 103-108.

Hammer, S. (1993). “Dwarf dwarfs: Conophytum, the section Minuscula.” Haseltonia(1): 18-28.

Hammer, S. (2005). “Lithops Flowering Stones.” Cactus and Succulent Journal 77(4): 194-195.

Hammer, S. and H. Hartmann (1990). “Shedding light on windows: in Conophytum.” Cactus and succulent journal (USA).

Hammer, S. and S. Liede (1990). “Natural and artificial hybrids in Mesembryanthemaceae.” South African Journal of Botany 56(3): 356-362.

Hammer, S. A. (1993). “The genus Conophytum: a conograph.” Pretoria: Succulent Plant Publications 283p.-illus., col. illus.. ISBN 620176334.

Hammer, S. A. (2002). “Dumpling and his wife: new views of the genus Conophytum.” Norwich: EAE Creative Colour 398p.-col. illus.. ISBN 953932613.

Herppich, W. B., G. Midgley, et al. (1996). “CAM variations in the leaf succulent Delosperma tradescantioides (Mesembryanthemaceae), native to southern Africa.” Physiologia Plantarum 98(3): 485-492.

Ihlenfeldt, H. (1975). “Some trends in the evolution of the Mesembryanthemaceae.” Boissiera 24a: 249-254.

Jump, J. (1988). “Phytogeographic and evolutionary trends in Lithops.” Aloe 25(2): 33.

Kellner, A., et al., Genetic differentiation in the genus Lithops L.(Ruschioideae, Aizoaceae) reveals a high level of convergent evolution and reflects geographic distribution. Plant Biology, 2011. 13(2): p. 368–380.

Krulik, G. A. (1980). “Light transmission in window-leaved plants.” Canadian Journal of Botany 58(14): 1591-1600.

Nobel, P. (1989). “Shoot temperatures and thermal tolerances for succulent species of Haworthia and Lithops.” Plant, Cell & Environment 12(6): 643-651.

OPEL, M. R. (2005). “Leaf anatomy of Conophytum NE Br.(Aizoaceae).” Haseltonia: 27-52.

SIMPSON, L. and R. MOORE (1984). “Cellular Structure and Light Absorbtion in Leaves of Frithia pulchra (Mesembryanthemaceae).” Annals of Botany 53(3): 413.

Smith, M. T., N. R. Crouch, et al. (1996). “Psychoactive constituents of the genus Sceletium NE Br. and other Mesembryanthemaceae: a review.” Journal of ethnopharmacology 50(3): 119-130.

Tanner, V. and B. Eller (1986). “Epidermis structure and its significance for the optical properties of leaves of the Mesembryanthemaceae.” Journal of plant physiology 125(3-4): 285-294.

Turner, J. S. and M. D. Picker (1993). “Thermal ecology of an embedded dwarf succulent from southern Africa (Lithops spp: Mesembryanthemaceae).” Journal of Arid Environments 24(4): 361-385.

Zonneveld, B. (1993). “Observations on inheritance of leaf and flower colour in Lithops lesliei.” Mesemb. Stud. Group Bull 8(1): 14-15.

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